The Roman army that served in Britain in the first centuries after Christ had many nationalities in its ranks, from all over the Empire and beyond. One such group was a small contingent of Frisians from what in now the Netherlands, a region never properly subdued by the Romans. These Frisians were stationed on the bleak outpost of Hadrian’s Wall, and here they made small statues of their ancestral deities. These deities included three goddesses, regarded as the mothers of the human race. They were sisters, and their names were Lyda, Finda, and Frya. They were the daughters of Mother Earth (Irtha) and the World Serpent (Wr-alda). This is significant because the Frisians were the ancestors of the Water Witches.

Frisians MapThe Frisians believed that it was their own forebears who had constructed the stone circles of the British Isles, and the megalithic remains which are found all over Europe. They also claimed to be descended from the inhabitants of the lost island of Atlantis (or Atland, as they called it). Combining the information found in the Oera Linda Book (the sacred text of the Frisians) with the writings of Plato and other ancient authors, it is possible to piece together the structure and administration of megalithic (i.e. Frisian) society prior to the destruction of Atlantis (which is said to have occurred in 2194 BC).

The megalithic culture existed across the whole of western and northern Europe, and was the earliest large-scale civilisation on earth. Both Plato and the Oera Linda Book tell us that this vast area was divided into ten autonomous kingdoms, or kin groups, spread out over large tracts of Europe. In the north-west the Frisians had spread as far as the North Sea, which they called the Sea of Wr-alda. In the north-east they had spread as far as the Baltic, which they called the East Sea. In the south-west they had spread across the Iberian peninsula as far as Gibraltar and the Mediterranean, which they called the Middle Sea. In the south-east they had spread as far as the dense forests of central Europe, which they called Twiskland. Thirteen large rivers ran through the lands of the Frisians, including the Rhine.

The Oera Linda Book names the ten kingdoms, or kin groups, as: the Jutta (north-east Germany and north-west Poland), the Letne (Baltic islands), the Stiurar (Netherlands), the Sekampar (north-west Germany), the Angelara (central-north Germany), the Kadhemar (Belgium and north-east France), the Saxmanna (central-west Germany), the Landsaton (north German coast, Denmark, and North Sea Land), the Marsata (Switzerland), and the Holt or Wodsata (Portugal, Spain, and western France). In addition it names Skenland (south Sweden) and Westland (British Isles) which were not kingdoms in their own right but overseas possessions of the Landsaton Kingdom, which was the chief kin group. It is also stated that colonies existed in Heinde Krekaland (Italy) and Lydia (either western Turkey or north Africa).

The Skenland colony was, to all intents and purposes, a kingdom in its own right, though without the official status of one. Britain, on the other hand, was the land of the exiles. Those Frisians who committed acts of treachery against their own people were banished to Britain, along with those guilty of other serious crimes against their kinfolk, to work in penal servitude in the tin mines of Cornwall. The traitors were tattooed with red dye, and the criminals with blue.

A glance at the map will show that the lands inhabited by the Frisians were those very regions that display evidence of having been part of the megalithic culture. Moreover, at the time that the Frisians dwelt there the megalithic culture was in its heyday. The obvious conclusion is that the Frisians were the originators of that culture, the remains of which can be seen to this day in the form of cromlechs, dolmens, barrows, and stone circles such as Stonehenge. The earliest of these crypts, or temples, have been dated to around 4800 BC, so this gives us a starting point for the long and convoluted history of the Frisians.

Constitutional Arrangements

We only possess detailed information on the organisation of the Landsaton Kingdom, but it is to be assumed that the other kingdoms had similar institutions, coloured by local conditions. Most of the Landsaton Kingdom consisted of a huge rectangular plain to the west of the Danish peninsular, 200 by 300 miles in area. The long axis pointed due north. This incredibly fertile plain produced all the food requirements for the entire Koinonia (community of ten kingdoms), and was thus called Atland (“Oat-land”), a name corrupted to Atlantis in Greek. Possession of this plain within its territory ensured that the Landsaton Kingdom remained pre-eminent over the others. Unfortunately, by 2194 BC most of this vast area was below sea level, and was protected from flooding by massive dykes. Within these dykes a huge canal went round the whole perimeter and was thus a thousand miles long. The plain was also criss-crossed by smaller canals, 19 running from north to south, and 29 running from east to west, all of them ten miles apart. In addition to transport, the canals brought fresh water to all parts of the plain.

In the very middle of the southern edge of the plain a circular island jutted out into the sea, where the modern Dutch island of Texel is today. This island was some 13 miles in diameter, and had upon it the Holy City, glittering capital of the Landsaton Kingdom and therefore of the whole Koinonia. In those days the Holy City was called Flyland. Most of Atland perished in 2194 BC when the dykes were breached, and the same fate befell Flyland. Parts of the central portion of the city remained, however, as it was built on a hill, and this was later renamed Fryasburch, after Frya, the ancestral goddess who perished in the catastrophe.

The plain itself was divided into 200 thin strips running lengthways, known as states, the administrative equivalent of modern counties. These in turn were further subdivided into 300 lots (or hundreds), each of which being one square mile in area. There were thus 60,000 lots on the entire plain, and each one was also assigned territory in the uplands to the south and east, in what is now north Germany and Denmark. Each lot had to furnish, in times of war: one man-at-arms, one charioteer, two horse-riders, two heavily-armed soldiers, two archers, two slingers, three stone shooters, three javelin-men, four sailors, plus one defender (or headman) elected by his troops (and four horses, one sixth of a chariot, and one fiftieth of a ship). Because each lot thus provided 21 fighting men, each state (i.e. 300 lots) had a force of 6300 troops at its disposal. One hundred of the 300 headmen retired each year. The Landsaton Kingdom as a whole had a massive army of 1,260,000 men.

The administrative centres of the states, known as burches (“boroughs”), were lined up along the southern perimeter of the plain, all 200 of them. The burch itself was actually a temple, and also acted as a citadel. Each state employed 50 agriculturalists, three messengers, one scribe, and one surgeon. There were also three annually elected officials: the burchmaster (who looked after civil affairs), the grevetman (who commanded the army), and the olderman (who looked after all naval operations and overseas trade). Each of these leaders chose seven elders to assist him in his duties, and these acted as his council (three of each group of seven elders were replaced each year). In other words, each state had three town councils of seven members each who looked after different areas of administration.

Each kingdom had an assembly, which was attended by the burchmasters, grevetmen, and oldermen. The assembly of the Landsaton Kingdom thus had 600 members (in fact, it had 800 members, because the high priestesses of each state also attended – see below for details of these). Prior to 2194 BC the kingdoms had no administrative apparatus other than the assembly, which met annually in the holy month of Helige (and was accompanied by the ritual slaying of a bull). When it met the assembly elected an asega, who acted as speaker, and assented to any legislation. The asega had no function outside the assembly, however, so must not be regarded as a political leader for his kingdom. He held office only for the duration of the assembly, which was less than a month. Each of the states within the kingdom were largely autonomous. The kingdoms themselves were wholly independent of each other, but were united by a common culture and religion. All of them recognised the authority of the goddess Frya (daughter of Irtha and Wr-alda) who resided in the holy temple at Flyland.

After the Flood attempts were made to bring the ten kingdoms of the Koinonia under a more unified administration. As part of this a General Assembly was instituted, which met every fifth and sixth year alternately (more or less) at Flyland, which was now renamed Fryasburch. This was the occasion of the sacred Bull Ceremony in the temple of Frya, performed in the intercalated month of Horn (which was always followed by the fasting month of Lent). The General Assembly consisted of all the members of the assemblies of the individual kingdoms. It could also hold emergency extra meetings at any time if summoned by the priestesses. The speaker of the General Assembly was known as the Asega-Askar.

As from 2013 BC, when the Koinonia was attacked by the Magyar-Finns, each kingdom had an annually elected king, though (unlike all other officials) he was not allowed to remain in office for more than three years in a row. He could seek re-election after an interval of seven years. Like all elected officials, his election took place on Yule Day (the first day of the year). The functions of the king were strictly military, and he answered to the folk mother (see below). Unless it was an emergency, he was not allowed to be succeeded by a close relative. This safeguard against hereditary power was later subverted by Friso, who founded a dynasty. Well before this time, however, the grevetmen had tended to be drawn from influential families, and were often in charge of many states at once. These powerful families called themselves “nobles”, and their leaders were known as “dukes”. These developments occurred in the degenerative phase of Frisian history, and must not be taken as representative of the earlier period.

All males were expected to serve in the armed forces. At the age of 12 each boy had to begin to train with weapons, devoting one day a week to this. When perfect, he became a warrior, one of the 20 soldiers from each lot (see above). After serving three years he was given a vote in the election of the headman. After another seven years he was allowed to vote for any other official (including the king, when that office was instituted), and could also stand as a candidate in any election. The men spent at least 20 years in the armed forces, probably longer, from about age 12 to 32. They then either settled down to civilian life or became a headman. In addition, all men had to be married by the age of 25. If they refused, or were unable to find a wife, they were driven from the land. The only hope of return was to declare an oath of celibacy. If this was ever broken, severe penalties would be incurred.

The Order of Priestesses

First and foremost, the Koinonia was a matriarchy. This probably accounts for the rather harsh way that men were treated. The real rulers of the community were the priestesses, who were all under the control of the goddess Frya. Each state had a burch or temple, which generally took the form of a megalithic structure such as a cromlech or stone circle. Often the bodies of important officials were buried there. Each temple had a permanent staff of 21 priestesses (famna, or “femmes” in modern translation), seven assistants, and one high priestess (burchfam). Every year four girls aged 12 were selected from perhaps 300 of that age in each state. Three of these were to become priestesses in the temple, and the other one would become an assistant to the high priestess. On the Yule Day the three new priestesses would leave their family home and enter the temple precincts. They were not permitted to see their families again for seven years. It was also essential that they be virgins – upon becoming priestesses they took an oath of complete celibacy that was binding for the rest of their lives. To symbolise this they wore white from this point on.

Priestess UniformThe uniform of a priestess, which was the only garment they were allowed to wear, was a single tunic of thin white cloth, tied at the waist with a cord. Examples of this garment have been found preserved in Bronze Age sites from Denmark. The priestesses will also have worn bronze, silver, or gold bracelets and anklets, and other adornments, depending on their rank.

The daily life of a priestess was very hard. For three hours they were in attendance at the temple. For the next three hours they were given instruction. For the next three hours they ate, slept, and bathed (always in cold, fresh water). At no time were they allowed indoors, and slept with their arms folded over their chests, under the stars. The only foodstuffs allowed, in addition to water, were: barley, peas, honey, cucumber, raisins, cheese, cream, onion, coriander, and daffodil. There were always seven priestesses in attendance at the temple, one from each year between the ages of 12 and 18. Six of these stood in a circle, continuously performing the so-called Saxon Greeting (more properly, Frisian Greeting). This consisted of sitting on one’s haunches, then rising to a standing position, then lowering oneself onto one’s haunches again, and repeating this continuously for three hours. During this whole process their hands remained on their foreheads, palms outward. The seventh and oldest priestess was positioned in the centre of the circle. She sat against a post or stone, her knees at right angles, though with no support under her legs. Her hands were in the same position as those of the others. All chanted continuously. The energy raised by the priestesses was channelled into the earth by the one in the middle.

After three years of serving as a priestess, the girls were occasionally allowed to leave the temple precincts with an elder priestess (oldfam). After serving seven full years they became elder priestesses themselves, and left the temple (aged 19). They now entered the community, and ministered to the people in various capacities, such as leaders of religious ceremonies, teachers, arbitrators, etc. At no time where they allowed to relax their oath of celibacy, and always had to wear the priestessly uniform and to only eat the permitted food. And, like the priestesses, they were never allowed to enter a building. Incidentally, the prohibition against priestesses entering buildings did not refer to ships or boats of any kind. The Koinonia had been created by seafarers, elder priestesses and high priestesses regularly travelled by ship to all sorts of places.

Most elder priestesses remained so for the rest of their lives. Since it was apparently quite normal for them to reach the age of 100, we may postulate the existence of at least 240 elder priestesses in each state. Out of all these, one was chosen by Frya to be the high priestess, who was in charge of the temple, state, and all its people. And the high priestess need not even have been a native of the state over which she was placed. The seven assistants who were chosen at the same time as the priestesses (see above) were the personal servants of the high priestess, and after serving seven years they re-entered the community. The high priestess also had three messengers and seven horses to make her will known across the state. Like the elder priestesses, the high priestesses of course were still bound by all the taboos and restrictions, with one exception. The high priestess of a state had an official dwelling, a house near the temple, which was the only building she was allowed to enter. There is only one example, throughout the entire history of the Frisians, of a high priestess renouncing her vows and not being buried alive, as was the usual punishment. This was Adela, who got away with it because of her immense popularity.

The order of priestesses (consisting of all the priestesses in the Koinonia) was the most powerful institution of all, and bound the whole culture together. It was firmly under the control of Frya in Flyland. As mother of her people, Frya also acted as high priestess in her own glittering temple (all high priestesses were sometimes called “mothers”). This chief temple was organised in a very similar way to the others, the only difference being that Frya had 21 messengers and 36 horses. In 2194 BC Frya called the very first General Assembly at Flyland. She knew she was soon to perish, so gave to her people a set of written rules. The Asega-Askar (speaker) at this very first General Assembly in the year of the Flood was named Fosite. He was later venerated as a deity, and was particularly invoked for legal matters. The authority and power of Frya was inherited by a succession of folk mothers, who acted as high priestesses of Frya’s temple. The folk mother (like Frya) appointed high priestesses in all other temples, and also appointed her own successor (usually in a written will) – though if she failed to do so, a successor was elected by the General Assembly.

The first folk mother after the death of Frya was Fasta, a great religious reformer. When Frya perished and most of Flyland became submerged, her temple, which was on a hill, survived, though it caught fire. Fasta decreed that this fire must never be allowed to go out, and, furthermore, fires lit from it should be placed in every temple of the Koinonia, and in any new temple. She further decreed that temples could from now on be enclosed. From this arose the great hexagonal towers, built from hard baked bricks or wood, which came to replace and supersede the stone structures of the past. The sacred flame, or Lamp, lit from the one in Fryasburch, was placed atop the tower, a beacon for the neighbourhood. Here, on the flat and level top of the tower, the priestesses ate, slept, worked, and performed their never-ending ritual (the ban on entering buildings was still rigidly enforced). Inside the tower and the various outbuildings lived the assistants, messengers, and various other state officials and employees, plus the high priestess, in her official residence.

Fasta also developed a written alphabet, derived from the symbols used for monumental inscriptions by Frya. She also devised a new calendar to take account of the new conditions prevailing in the world.

Ancient Religious Practices

It has often been said, usually by Frisian scholars themselves, that Frisian religion was primarily astral in orientation. Though the early megalith builders certainly venerated the sun and moon, they reserved their greatest religious awe for the stars. In particular, they venerated, or worshipped, the star-cluster of the Pleiades, or Seven Sisters as they called it (they seem to have equated it with the Great Bear in some way during the early period). Worship of the Pleiades was common throughout ancient civilisation, which is strange because it is hardly a distinctive feature of the night sky, unlike, say, Sirius, which was also widely venerated. Sirius is the brightest star in the sky, but the Pleiades are an amorphous and faint blob on the other side of Orion. And, of course, there are not seven Pleiades, or even seven brightest ones. In fact, the Pleiades are a cradle of new stars, and are only about sixty million years old (their creation roughly coincided with the mass extinction of the dinosaurs, and there is even some suggestion that the souls of the dinosaurs went into the Pleiades, or gave rise to them).

To the Frisians, and other ancient peoples as well (such as the Sumerians) the Pleiades represented the forces of Chaos, which were often symbolised by huge monsters and dragons (hence the dinosaur connection). They were worshipped because they were powerful, not because they were thought of as benevolent. In particular, the forces of Chaos were symbolised by a seven headed-dragon or serpent, which was given many names: Tiamat by the Sumerians, Lotan by the Phoenicians, and simply “The World” (Wr-alda) by the Frisians. The Hebrews, of course, gave it the name Leviathan, and knowledge of this creature is one of the great secrets of the magical orders, even to this day.

At some point Wr-alda (to use the Frisian name) came, or more properly returned, to earth. This event marked the “Cosmic Year” (Anno Mundi) of myth, the year when the “King of the Cosmos” (Rex Mundi) returned.

Wr-alda in some way impregnated, or breathed essence into, Irtha (the earth personified as a goddess, otherwise known as Mother Earth). Yet Irtha was also part of Wr-alda, or at any rate became so, becoming the eighth head, or to be more precise, the first head, with the other seven all moving up one. This is all very arcane stuff, but suffice to say that each head has a proper number, and magical correspondences. The most secret head is number eight, which is supposed to be one of the greatest magical secrets of all time. Thus the earth (Irtha) is simply one part of the world (Wr-alda).

The outcome of this impregnation was that Irtha gave birth to three daughters named Lyda, Finda, and Frya. These beings were not really human in the normal sense of the word, but were in fact semi-immortal deities. They became the ancestors of the modern human race, according to Frisian myth, or at any rate instructed humans in the arts of civilisation. But Lyda and Finda were flawed in what they taught. Lyda seems to have operated in the Mediterranean area, and to have been responsible for Sumer and Egypt. Finda, on the other hand, concentrated her efforts in central Asia, amongst the various cultures there, and perhaps in the Far East as well. But, from the point of view of the Frisians, both Lyda and Finda produced twisted and perverted civilisations. Only Frya was perfect, for she founded the Frisian civilisation, which named itself after her. Claiming that only one’s own culture was perfect, and all others were bad, was a common feature of the ancient world, and we must not judge the Frisians too harshly on this matter. Frya’s centre of operations was the land that is now under the North Sea, plus northern and western Europe.

Lyda is alleged by the Frisians to have died of a broken heart at the follies of her “children” (the ancient civilisations of the Fertile Crescent). Finda, in Asia, subsequently died, though her cause of death was unknown. The last to die was Frya, who perished in the Flood.

The death of Frya did not, of course, mean the end of her existence. Her soul was now reunited with its origin or essence, in other words the star from which it came, one of the Pleiades. Her sisters Lyda and Finda had already gone there before her, to their own stars. There were four others who made up the Seven Sisters of the Pleiades, and these turned out to be Fasta, Medea, Thiania, and Hellenia, the first four successors of Frya as rulers of the Frisians. These seven later gave their names to the days of the week.

Cosmic Twins

The Frisians believed that all human beings have their own star, or “watch-star” as they called it. “Every man and every woman is a star” once wrote a famous poet (Aleister Crowley in Liber Legis 1:3), but even he could not have conceived of the literal meaning of these inspired words. Legends that are aeons old speak of a time when each human soul was born in its own star, one of the myriads that exist in the universe. In the fires of its creation each star throws forth a soul, or essence, which floats through space until it lands on a planet such as earth. Here it successively reincarnates through vegetable, animal, and human life, until it achieves consciousness. Now it must discover which star it came from, in order to return there, and cultivate its own planet, making it ready to receive other, newer souls as they float through space. In other words, become like a god or goddess. But to do this the soul must contact its future self, or Cosmic Twin, a being which is capable of transcending time. This Cosmic Twin is really the soul in its future stage of development, and comes to earth in the form of an alien. Therefore each person on earth has an alien counterpart somewhere out there. All that we need to do is make contact with them, in order to become them in a future life.

This, at any rate, is how a Frisian might have put it, had he been using modern language. When we think of “aliens”, however, certain stereotypical images spring to mind, which are unhelpful in trying to understand what ancient peoples conceived. The word “alien” means “other”, and it was from other realms that the aliens came. There was no distinction, as far as the ancients were concerned, between aliens and elves, fairies, and goblins. All were manifestations of the same thing, i.e. the existence of life-forms that seem independent of the physical world as we know it. Furthermore, there are vast amounts of similarities between aliens and elves, including all the tales of abduction and time distortion. The “Cosmic Twin”, referred to above, might just as easily be described as a familiar spirit, or even holy guardian angel (as Crowley did).

If there was any purpose to Frisian religion (and we must remember that many ancient Pagan religions had no “purpose” at all, other than to ensure that the yearly harvest was good, itself very important) then it was to achieve communication, or communion, with beings from other orders of reality, such as elves, goblins, aliens, etc. One could gain a great deal of power from this contact, but ultimately the purpose was to locate one’s own Cosmic Twin, and hence be able to go to one’s watch-star after death and become a god oneself, instead of just going through another reincarnation here on earth. The creation of what magicians call thought-forms played an important part in this, because the Frisians saw no real distinction between entities that have just been created, and those which are aeons old. Indeed, they believed it possible to create a thought-form of oneself, into which the consciousness could be transferred at death, and which could then live on as a Vampire. This was another way of avoiding reincarnation, but it was seen as only temporary, postponing the inevitable. There is even a suggestion that Frya and her siblings achieved lives of thousands of years by this very method. On the other hand, perhaps they had found their watch-stars already, and came to earth as deities simply to help the human race, before eventually returning to the Pleiades. There was no end to speculation amongst Frisian scholars.

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